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Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP):

Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) are those principles that have substantial authoritative support. The AICPA's code of professional conduct requires that members prepare  financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Specifically rule 203 of this code prohibits a member from expressing an opinion that financial statements conform with GAAP if those statements contain a material departure from GAAP, unless the member can demonstrate that because of usual circumstances the financial statements would other wise have been misleading. Failure to follow rule 203 can lead to loss of a CPA's license to practice.

Definition and Explanation of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP):

The meaning of GAAP is defined by statement of auditing standards (SAS) NO.69, "The meanings of 'present fairly in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles' in the independent auditor's report." Under this standard, GAAP covered by rule 203 are construed to be FASB standards and interpretations, APB opinions, and AICPA accounting research bulletins.

Often however, a specific accounting transaction occurs that is not covered by any of these documents. In this case, other authoritative literature is used. Major examples are: FASB technical bulletins, AICPA industry auditing and accounting guides; and considered to have substantial authoritative support because the recognized professional bodies, after giving interested and affected parties the opportunity to react to exposure drafts and respond at public hearing, have voted their issuance. If these pronouncements are lacking in guidance, then other sources might be considered. If the accounting treatment of an event is not specified by a category. The hierarchy of these sources is presented in the example Below. If the accounting treatment of an event is not specified by a category (a) pronouncement, then categories (b) through (d) should be investigated. If there is a conflict between pronouncements in (b) through (d), the higher category is to be followed. For example, (b) is higher than (c).

If non of these pronouncements addresses the event, the support is sought from other accounting literature. Examples of accounting literatures include FASB concepts statements, International Accounting Standards, and Accounting articles.

House of GAAP

Category (d)

Accounting Interpretations

Guides (Q & A)

Widely recognized and prevalent industry practices

Category (c)

FASB Emerging
Issues Task Force

AICPA AcSEC Practice

Category (b)


AICPA Industry
Audit and Accounting Guides

of Position

Category (a)

Standards and Interpretations


Research Bulletins


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  1. What is managerial accounting?

  2. Difference between financial and managerial accounting (Financial accounting vs managerial accounting).

  3. Need for managerial accounting information.

  4. History of managerial accounting.

  5. Code of conduct for management accountants.

  6. The certified management accountants (CMA).


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Managerial Accounting

Introduction to Managerial Accounting
Business and Quality Improvement Programs
Cost Terms, Concepts and Classification
Job Order Costing system
Process Costing System
Process Costing System - Addition of Materials & Beginning Inventory
Controlling and Costing Materials
Materials and Inventory Cost Control
By Products and Joint Products Costing
Variable Costing System
Activity Based Costing System
Budgeting and Planning
Standard Costing and Variance Analysis
Gross Profit Analysis
Linear Programming Technique
Segment Reporting and Transfer Pricing
Capital Budgeting Decisions
Service Department Costing
Cash Flow statement
Financial statement Analysis
Pricing Products and Services
Managerial Accounting Terms and Definitions
Managerial / Cost Accounting Formulas

Financial Accounting

Bookkeeping and Bookkeeping Terms
Accounting Principles and Accounting Equation
Accounting For Bills of Exchange
Subdivision of Journal
Final Accounts
Capital and Revenue Items
Single Entry System/Accounting From Incomplete Records
Accounting For Non-Trading Concerns
Accounting for Consignment / Consignment Accounts
Accounting for Joint Ventures
Accounting for Depreciation

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