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Home Introduction to managerial accounting History of  managerial Accounting

History of Managerial Accounting:

Managerial accounting has its roots in the industrial revolution of the 19th century. During this early period, most firms were tightly controlled by a few owner-managers who borrowed based on personal relationships and their personal assets.

Since there were no external shareholders and little unsecured debt, there was little need for elaborate financial reports. In contrast, managerial accounting was relatively sophisticated and provided the essential information needed to manage the early large scale production of textile, steel, and other products. After the turn of the century, financial accounting requirements burgeoned because of new pressures placed on companies by capital markets, creditors, regulatory bodies, and federal taxation of income. Johnson and Kaplan state that "many firms needed to raise funds from increasingly widespread and detached suppliers of capital. To tap these vast reservoirs of outside capital, firms' managers had to supply audited financial reports. And because outside suppliers of capital relied on audited financial statements, independent accountants had a keen interest in establishing well defined procedures for corporate financial reporting. The inventory costing procedure adopted by public accountants after the turn of the century had a profound effect on management accounting. As a consequence, for many decades, management accountants increasingly focused their efforts on ensuring that financial accounting requirements were met and financial reports were released on time.

The practice of management accounting stagnated. In the early part of the century, as product line expanded operations became more complex, forward looking companies saw a renewed need for management-oriented reports that was separate from financial reports. But in most companies, management accounting practices up through the mid-1980s were largely indistinguishable from practices that were common prior to world war I. In recent years, however, new economic forces have led to many important innovations in management accounting.  These new practices are discussed in other chapters.


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  6. The certified management accountants (CMA).


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Managerial Accounting

Introduction to Managerial Accounting
Business and Quality Improvement Programs
Cost Terms, Concepts and Classification
Job Order Costing system
Process Costing System
Process Costing System - Addition of Materials & Beginning Inventory
Controlling and Costing Materials
Materials and Inventory Cost Control
By Products and Joint Products Costing
Variable Costing System
Activity Based Costing System
Budgeting and Planning
Standard Costing and Variance Analysis
Gross Profit Analysis
Linear Programming Technique
Segment Reporting and Transfer Pricing
Capital Budgeting Decisions
Service Department Costing
Cash Flow statement
Financial statement Analysis
Pricing Products and Services
Managerial Accounting Terms and Definitions
Managerial / Cost Accounting Formulas

Financial Accounting

Bookkeeping and Bookkeeping Terms
Accounting Principles and Accounting Equation
Accounting For Bills of Exchange
Subdivision of Journal
Final Accounts
Capital and Revenue Items
Single Entry System/Accounting From Incomplete Records
Accounting For Non-Trading Concerns
Accounting for Consignment / Consignment Accounts
Accounting for Joint Ventures
Accounting for Depreciation

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