Fixed Overhead Efficiency Variance
Fixed Overhead Efficiency Variance:
Learning Objective of the article:
- Define and explain fixed overhead efficiency variance.
- How is fixed overhead efficiency variance calculated?
- What are the reasons / causes of unfavorable fixed overhead efficiency variance?
When companies adopt four variance approach they divide the overhead efficiency variance (which is calculated when three variance approach is used) into its variable and fixed components. Variable component is called variable overhead efficiency variance and fixed component is called fixed overhead efficiency variance.
Formula of Fixed overhead Efficiency Variance:
Following formula is used for the calculation of fixed overhead efficiency variance:
(Actual hours worked × Fixed overhead rate) – (Standard hours allowed × Fixed overhead rate)
Example:
Following is the flexible budget of a department of a manufacturing company.
Department 3 |
||||
Capacity | 80% | 90% | 100% | |
Standard production | 800 | 1,000 | 1,200 | |
Direct labor hours | 3,200 | 4,000 | 4,800 | |
Variable factory overhead: | ||||
Indirect labor | $1,600 | $2,000 | $2,400 | $0.50 / dlh |
Indirect materials | 960 | 1,200 | 1,440 | $0.30 |
Supplies | 640 | 800 | 960 | $0.20 |
Repairs | 480 | 600 | 720 | $0.15 |
Power and light | 160 | 200 | 240 | $0.05 |
———- | ———- | ———- | ———- | |
Total variable factory overhead | $3,840 | $4,800 | $5,760 | $1.20 per dlh |
====== | ====== | ====== | ====== | |
Fixed factory overhead: | ||||
Supervisor | $1,200 | $1,200 | $1,200 | |
Depreciation on machinery | 700 | 700 | 700 | |
Insurance | 250 | 250 | 250 | |
Property tax | 250 | 250 | 250 | |
Power and light | 400 | 400 | 400 | |
Maintenance | 400 | 400 | 400 | |
———- | ———- | ———- | ||
Total fixed factory overhead | $3,200 | $3,200 | $3,200 | $3,200 per month |
———- | ———- | ———- | ====== | |
Total factory overhead | $7,040 | $8,000 | $8,960 | $3,200 per month + $1.20 per dlh |
====== | ====== | ====== | ====== |
Following data is also provided:
Actual factory overhead is $7,384. Actual production is 850 units of finished product. Actual hours used are 3,475 hours. 4 standard hours are allowed to complete a unit of finished product.
Required: Calculate fixed overhead efficiency variance.
Calculation of Standard Overhead Rate:
Assuming that 90% column represents normal capacity, the standard overhead rate is computed as follows:
Total factory overhead / Direct labor hours
= $8,000 / 4,000
= $2 per standard direct labor hour
At 90% capacity level, the rate consists of:
Total variable factory overhead / Direct labor hours
= $4,800 / 4,000
= $1.20 variable factory overhead rate
Total fixed factory overhead / Direct labor hours
= $3,200 / 4,000
= $0.80 fixed factory overhead rate
Total factory overhead rate at normal capacity:
($1.20 + $0.80) = $2.00
Calculation of fixed overhead efficiency variance:
Actual hours worked (3,475) × Fixed overhead rate ($0.80) | $2,780 |
Standard hours allowed (3,400) × Fixed overhead rate ($0.80) | $2,720 |
————- | |
Unfavorable fixed overhead efficiency variance | $60 unfav. |
====== |
When variable overhead efficiency variance and fixed overhead efficiency variance are combined, they equal the overhead efficiency variance of the three variance method. This concept is further explained by the following equation:
Overhead efficiency variance = Variable overhead efficiency variance + fixed overhead efficiency variance
$150* = $90** + $60
$150 = $150
*See overhead efficiency variance page
**See variable overhead efficiency variance page
You may also be interested in other articles from “standard costing and variance analysis” chapter
- Standard Costs and Management By Exception
- Setting Standard Costs – Ideal Versus Practical Standards
- Direct Materials Price and Quantity Standards
- Direct Materials Price Variance
- Direct Materials Quantity Variance
- Direct Labor Rate and Efficiency Standards
- Direct Labor Rate/Price Variance
- Direct Labor Efficiency | Usage | Quantity Variance
- Manufacturing Overhead Standards
- Overall or net factory overhead variance.
- Controllable variance
- Volume variance
- Spending variance
- Idle capacity variance
- Efficiency variance
- Spending variance
- Variable efficiency variance
- Fixed efficiency variance
- Idle capacity variance
- Mix and Yield Variance – Definition and Explanation
- Materials Mix and Yield Variance
- Labor Yield Variance
- Factory Overhead Yield variance
- Variance Analysis and Management By Exception
- Managerial importance and usefulness of variance analysis
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Standard Costing System
- Standard Costing Discussion Questions and Answers
- Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Formulas
- Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Problems and Solution
- Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Case Study