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Home Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Materials Mix and Yield Variance

Materials Mix and Yield Variance:

Learning Objective of the article:

  1. Define and explain materials mix and yield variances.
  2. What are the formulas of materials mix and yield variances?
  3. Calculate materials mix and yield variance.

Price and quantity variances of direct materials are explained on direct materials price variance and direct materials quantity variance pages respectively. Here, our focus is to explain the calculation of materials mix variance and materials yield variance.

Formulas of Material Mix and Yield Variance:

1. Materials Mix Variance:

Actual quantities at individual standard materials costs   Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs

2. Materials Yield Variance:

 Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs   Actual output quantity at standard materials cost

An example can help us calculation of materials mix and yield variance. Consider the following example:


To illustrate the calculation of materials mix and yield variances assume that the springmint Company, a manufacturer of chewing gum, uses a standard cost system. Standard product and cost specifications for 1,000 lbs. of chewing gum are as follows:
  Quantity Price = Cost  
Gum base 800   $0.25   $200
Corn syrup 200   $0.40   80
Sugar 200   $0.10   20
  --------       --------
Input 1,200 lbs       $300

$300 / 1,200 lbs = $0.25 per lb.*

  =====       ====  
Output 1,000       $300

$300 / 1,000 lbs = $0.30 per lb.*

  =====       ====  

*Weighted average.

The production of 1,000 lbs. of chewing gum required 1,200 lbs of raw materials. Hence the yield is 1,000 lbs / 1,200lbs. or 5/6 of input. Materials records indicate.
Materials Beginning Inventory Purchases in January Ending Inventory
Materials Beginning Inventory Purchases in January Ending Inventory
Gum base 10,000 lbs 162,000 lbs@ 0.24 15,000 lbs
Corn Syrup 12,000 lbs 30,000 lbs  @ 0.42  4,000 lbs
Sugar 15,000 lbs

32,000 lbs  @ 0.11

11,000 lbs

To convert 1,200 lbs. of raw materials into 1,000 lbs of finished product required 20 hours at $6.00 per hour or $0.12 per lbs. of finished product. Actual direct labor hours and cost for January are 3,800 hours at $23,104. Factory overhead is applied on a direct labor hour basis at a rate of $5 per hour ($3 fixed , $2 variable), or $ 0.1 per lb. of finished product. Normal overhead is $20,000 with 4,000 direct labor hours. Actual overhead for the month is $22,000, Actual finished production for January is 200,000 lbs.

The standard cost per pound of finished chewing gum is:

$0.30 per lb.

Labor $0.12 per lb.
Factory overhead

$0.10 per lb

Required: Calculate:

  1. Materials price variance.
  2. Materials mix variance.
  3. Materials yield variance.

Calculation of Materials Price Variance:

The materials variances for January consists of  price variance, mix variance,  yield variance, and quantity variance. The company calculates the materials price variance using the procedure explained on "direct materials price variance" page and recognizes variances when materials are purchased.



Actual Price

Standard Price

Unit Price Variance

Price variance

Gum base






Corn syrup 30,000 $0.42 $0.40 $0.02 $600
Sugar 32,000




  --------- --------- --------- --------- ---------
materials price variance         $(700)F

Calculation of Materials Mix Variance:

The materials mix variance results from combining materials in a ratio different from the standard materials specifications. It is computed as follows:

Actual quantities at individual standard materials costs:    
Gum base 157,000 @ $0.25 $39,250  
Corn syrup 38,000 @ $0.40 $15,200  
Sugar 36,000 @ $0.10 $3,600  
  -------- $58,050
Actual quantity at weighted average of standard materials cost input 231,000 lbs $0.25   $57,750
Materials mix variance (unfavorable)   $300U

Calculation of Materials Yield Variance:

Material yield variance is computed as follows:

Actual quantity at weighted average of standard materials cost input 231,000 lbs $0.25 $57,750
Actual out put quantity at standard materials cost (200,000 lbs $0.30) $60,000
Material yield variance (Favorable) $(2,250)F

F = Favorable
U = Unfavorable

The yield variance occurred because the actual production of 200,000 lbs. exceeded the expected output of 192,500 lbs. (5/6 of 231,000) by 7,500 lbs. The yield difference multiplied by the standard weighted materials cost of $0.30 per output pound equals the favorable yield variance of $2,250.

The materials quantity variance can be calculated for each item as follows, using the procedure explained on direct materials quantity variance page.

    Unit Standard unit cost = Amount Materials quantity variance
Gum base:

Actual quantity used

157,000 lbs   $0.25   $39,250  
  Standard quantity allowed 160,000 lbs*   $0.25   40,000  
            ----------- $ (750) Favorable
Corn Syrup: Actual quantity used 38,000 lbs   $0.40   $15,200  
  Standard quantity allowed 40,000 lbs**   $0.40   16,000  
            ------------ $ (800) Favorable
Sugar: Actual quantity used 36,000 lbs   $0.10   $3,600  
  Standard quantity allowed 4,000 lbs***   $0.10   4,000  
            ------------ $ (400) Favorable
  Total materials quantity variance ---------------------------------------------- $ (1,950) Favorable
  • *An output of 200,000 lbs. should require and output of 240,000 lbs., with a standard yield of 1,000 lbs. output for each 1,200 lbs input. Then the 240,000 lbs.  (800 lbs. / 1,200 lbs ) gum base portion of the formula = 160,000 lbs.
  • **The 240,000 lbs. (200lbs. / 1,200 lbs.) corn syrup portion of the formula = 40,000 lbs
  • ***The 240,000 lbs. (200lbs. / 1,200 lbs.) sugar portion of the formula = 40,000 lbs.

The total materials quantity variance can also be determined by comparing actual quantities at standard prices, $58,050 ($39250 + $15,200 + $3,600), to actual output quantity at standard materials cost, $60,000 (200,000 lbs $0.30) for a total favorable variance of $1,950. The mix and yield variances separate the materials quantity variance into two parts:

Materials mix variance $300 unfavorable
Materials yield variance (2,250) favorable
Materials quantity variance $(1,950) favorable

The influence of individual raw materials on the total materials mix variance can be calculated in the following manner:

Materials Actual quantity Standard Formula Total Actual Quantity = Actual quantity Using Standard Formula Quantity Variation Standard Unit Price = Materials Mix Variance
Gum base 157,000 lbs 800 / 1,200   231,000 lbs.   154,000 lbs 3,000 lbs   $0.25   $750
Corn syrup 38,000 lbs 200 / 1,200   231,000 lbs.   38,500 lbs (500)   $0.40   (200)
Sugar 36,000 lbs 200 / 1,200   231,000 lbs.   38,500 lbs (2,500)   $0.10   (250)
  ---------         ---------- ----------       ----------
  231,000 lbs         231,000 lbs -0-       $300
  ======         ====== ======       ======
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You may also be interested in other articles from "standard costing and variance analysis" chapter

  1. Standard Costs and Management By Exception
  2. Setting Standard Costs - Ideal Versus Practical Standards
  3. Direct Materials Price and Quantity Standards
  4. Direct Materials Price Variance
  5. Direct Materials Quantity Variance
  6. Direct Labor Rate and Efficiency Standards
  7. Direct Labor Rate/Price Variance
  8. Direct Labor Efficiency | Usage | Quantity Variance
  9. Manufacturing Overhead Standards
  10. Overall or net factory overhead variance.
  11. Controllable variance
  12. Volume variance
  13. Spending variance
  14. Idle capacity variance
  15. Efficiency variance
  16. Spending variance
  17. Variable efficiency variance
  18. Fixed efficiency variance
  19. Idle capacity variance
  20. Mix and Yield Variance - Definition and Explanation
  21. Materials Mix and Yield Variance
  22. Labor Yield Variance
  23. Factory Overhead Yield variance
  24. Variance Analysis and Management By Exception
  25. Managerial importance and usefulness of variance analysis
  26. Advantages and Disadvantages of Standard Costing System
  27. Standard Costing Discussion Questions and Answers
  28. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Formulas
  29. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Problems and Solution
  30. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Case Study


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