Over trading and Under Trading

Over-trading and under-trading are facets of over and under-capitalization. Over trading is a curse to the business.

Over Trading :

A company which is under-capitalized will try to do too much with the limited amount of capital which it has. For example it may not maintain proper stock of stock. Also it may not extend much credit to customers and may insist only on cash basis sales. It may also not pay the creditors on time. One can detect cases of overtrading by computing the current ratio and the various turnover ratios. The current ratio is likely to be very low and turn over ratios are likely to be very higher than normally in the industry concerned.

over trading

Under Trading :

Under-trading is the reverse of over-trading. It means keeping funds idle and not using them properly. This is due to the under employment of assets of the business, leading to the fall of sales and results in financial crises. This makes the business unable to meet its commitments and ultimately leads to forced liquidation. The symptoms in this case would be a very high current ratio and very low turnover ratio. Undertrading is an aspect of over-capitalization and leads to low profit.

You may also be interested in other articles from “financial statement analysis” chapter:

  1. Horizontal and Vertical Analysis
  2. Ratios Analysis
  3. Horizontal Analysis or Trend Analysis
  4. Trend Percentage
  5. Vertical Analysis
  6. Accounting Ratios Definition, Advantages, Classification and Limitations:
  7. Gross profit ratio
  8. Net profit ratio
  9. Operating ratio
  10. Expense ratio
  11. Return on shareholders investment or net worth
  12. Return on equity capital
  13. Return on capital employed (ROCE) Ratio
  14. Dividend yield ratio
  15. Dividend payout ratio
  16. Earnings Per Share (EPS) Ratio
  17. Price earning ratio
  18. Current ratio
  19. Liquid/Acid test/Quick ratio
  20. Inventory/Stock turnover ratio
  21. Debtors/Receivables turnover ratio
  22. Average collection period
  23. Creditors/Payable turnover ratio
  24. Working capital turnover ratio
  25. Fixed assets turnover ratio
  26. Over and under trading
  27. Debt-to-equity ratio
  28. Proprietary or Equity ratio
  29. Ratio of fixed assets to shareholders funds
  30. Ratio of current assets to shareholders funds
  31. Interest coverage ratio
  32. Capital gearing ratio
  33. Over and under capitalization
  34. Financial-Accounting- Ratios Formulas
  35. Limitations of Financial Statement Analysis


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